Ask Your Doctor About Oxytocin Compounds from The PharmaCompoundia!
What is Oxytocin?
Oxytocin is a powerful hormone. When we hug or kiss a loved one, oxytocin levels drive up. It also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. In fact, the hormone plays a huge role in pair bonding. Prairie voles, one of nature‘s most monogamous species, produce oxytocin in spades. This hormone is also greatly stimulated during sex, birth, breast feeding—the list goes on.
Oxytocin is a nonapeptide (nine amino acids) hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary. Oxytocin produces action both peripherally and in the brain. Oxytocin is released by males and females during orgasm and is considered by many to be the hormone of desire, social recognition and bonding.
Traditionally, Oxytocin has been administered by injection because oral dose forms would be destroyed by the gastrointestinal tract. The PharmaCompoundia can compound Oxytocin in several dosage forms such as troches (lozenges), nasal sprays and vaginal gels/cream, sublingual (liquid). These dosage forms are more convenient than injections and are stable and travel well.
Oxytocin has recently received significant interest in the Autism community as well. Researchers have found that autistic children have lower plasma levels of oxytocin than those of other children. Oxytocin plays a role in social behavior, including but not limited to: repetitive behaviors, the desire to form social bonds, social recognition, processing social cues, regulated feeding, excessive grooming, stress response and being aloof.
For more information on the use of Oxytocin in Autism Spectrum Disorder click the link below:
Oxytocin has also become the subject of studies in female sexual dysfunction specifically difficulty achieving orgasm. Oxytocin increases sexual receptivity and counteracts impotence. (Pedersen, C.A., 2002), (Arletti, 1997)
For more information on its use for this condition click the link below to see a presentation by Dr. Jorge Flechas:
Hollander E, Novotny S, Hanratty M, Yaffe R, DeCaria CM, Aronowitz BR, Mosovich S (2003): Oxytocin infusion reduces repetitive behaviors in adults with autistic and Aspberger’s disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:193-198.
Insel TR, O’Brien DJ, Leckman JF (1999): Oxytocin, vasopressin, and autism: is there a connection? Biol Psychiatry 45:145-147.
McCarthy MM, Altemus M (1997): Central nervous system actions of oxytocin and modulation of behavior in humans. Mol Med Today 3:269-275.
Modahl C, Green L, Fein D, Waterhouse L, Feinstein C, Morris M, Levin H (1998): Plasma oxytocin levels in autistic children. Biol Psychiatry 43:270-277.
Panksepp J (1992): Oxytocin effects on emotional processes: separation distress, social bonding, and relationships to psychiatric disorders. Ann NY Acad Sci 652:243-252.
Popik P, Vetulani J, van Ree JM (1992): Low doses of oxytocin facilitate social recognition in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 106:71-74
Waterhouse L, Fein D, Modahl C (1996): Neurofunctional mechanisms in autism. Psychol Rev 103:457-489.
Carmichael MS, Humbert R, Dixen J, et al. Plasma Oxytocin increases in the human sexual response. J Clin Endcrinol Metab, 1987. 64:27-31.
Oxytocin Cellular and Molecular Approaches in Medicine and Research. Ivell, R and Russell, J, editors.
Oxytocin-Induced Penile Erection, Role of Nitric Oxide. Argiolas, A and Melis, M. Cagliari, Italy: 247; 1995. Plenum Press, New York.
Oxytocin Cellular and Molecular Approaches in Medicine and Research. Increased female sexual response after Oxytocin. Anderson-Hunt M and Dennerstein L. Brit Med J 309:929: 236; 1994 Plenum Press, New York.
http://www.reuniting.info/science/oxytocin_health_bonding; accessed December 2007.
Oxytocin increases sexual receptivity and counteracts impotence. (Pedersen, C.A., 2002), (Arletti, 1997)
Package Insert for Pitocin and Syntocinon from www.drugs.com accessed December 2007.
A study previously published in the journal Psych neuroendocrinology showed that oxytocin levels skyrocket when people fall in love, and that a higher amount of oxytocin is correlated with longer relationships. Another study, in the journal Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, suggested that oxytocin improved communication and lowered cortisol, a stress hormone, in both men and women. Many scientists have consequently nicknamed oxytocin the “love” or “pro-social” hormone.
The study authors said further research should explore what oxytocin does at a molecular level, and which brain areas and what types of cells respond to the hormone. Their study explores how oxytocin behaves in just one context.
Other studies have examined whether oxytocin levels can be modified to enhance the social behaviors of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The mental condition impacts 1 in 68 children, and its hallmark is impaired social interaction.
Heintz said his team’s findings could help advance treatment development for ASD.
A study published last year in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggested that a single dose of oxytocin can increase brain functions responsible for social interaction in children and adolescents with autism. In their research, Yale University scientists found that brain centers associated with reward and emotional cognition responded more during social tasks when the study participants were giving an oxytocin nasal spray rather than a placebo nasal spray.
“Each study gives us more insight into how this [oxytocin] might be acting in humans,” Heintz said.
Oxytocin: Sexual Function & Response Research Abstracts
We have included a small collection of research abstracts about the relationship between oxytocin levels and sexual function / response in both men and women. For further research, we suggest visiting the US National Library of Medicine / National Institutes of Health website: http://www.pubmed.gov.
Prog Neurobiol. 2009 Jun;88(2):127-51. Epub 2009 Apr 10.
Oxytocin: the great facilitator of life.
Lee HJ, Macbeth AH, Pagani JH, Young WS 3rd.
Section on Neural Gene Expression, NIMH, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Oxytocin (Oxt) is a nonapeptide hormone best known for its role in lactation and parturition. Since 1906 when its uterine-contracting properties were described until 50 years later when its sequence was elucidated, research has focused on its peripheral roles in reproduction. Only over the past several decades have researchers focused on what functions Oxt might have in the brain, the subject of this review. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei are the neurons of origin for the Oxt released from the posterior pituitary. Smaller cells in various parts of the brain, as well as release from magnocellular dendrites, provide the Oxt responsible for modulating various behaviors at its only identified receptor. Although Oxt is implicated in a variety of “non-social” behaviors, such as learning, anxiety, feeding and pain perception, it is Oxt’s roles in various social behaviors that have come to the fore recently. Oxt is important for social memory and attachment, sexual and maternal behavior, and aggression. Recent work implicates Oxt in human bonding and trust as well. Human disorders characterized by aberrant social interactions, such as autism and schizophrenia, may also involve Oxt expression. Many, if not most, of Oxt’s functions, from social interactions (affiliation, aggression) and sexual behavior to eventual parturition, lactation and maternal behavior, may be viewed as specifically facilitating species propagation. PMID: 19482229
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Jan;64(1):27-31.
Plasma oxytocin increases in the human sexual response.
Carmichael MS, Humbert R, Dixen J, Palmisano G, Greenleaf W, Davidson JM.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma oxytocin (OT) levels change during human sexual responses and, if so, to demonstrate the temporal pattern of change. Plasma OT levels were measured by RIA before, during, and after private self-stimulation to orgasm in normal men (n = 9) and women (n = 13). Blood samples were collected continuously through indwelling venous catheters. The subjects pressed a signal to indicate the start and finish of orgasm/ejaculation. Objective assessment of sexual arousal and orgasm was obtained by measuring blood-pulse amplitude and electromyographic activity, recorded continuously throughout testing from an anal device containing a photoplethysmograph and electromyograph electrodes connected to a polygraph located in an adjacent room. These measures allowed collection of data from men and women of changes in blood flow and muscle activity in the lower pelvic/pubic area. Plasma OT levels increased during sexual arousal in both women and men and were significantly higher during orgasm/ejaculation than during prior baseline testing. We suggest that the temporal pattern of secretion could be related to smooth muscle contractions of the reproductive system during orgasm. PMID: 3782434
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1999;47(2):125-6.
The role of oxytocin in relation to female sexual arousal.
Blaicher W, Gruber D, Bieglmayer C, Blaicher AM, Knogler W, Huber JC.
Dept of Gynecology Obstetrics, Div of Gynecological Endocrinology Reproduction Medicine, Univ of Vienna, Austria.
Oxytocin is clearly involved in human reproduction and serves an important role in sexual arousal. Oxytocin serum levels were measured before and after sexual stimulation in 12 healthy women. Values of oxytocin 1 min after orgasm were significantly higher than baseline levels. This finding supports the hypothesis that oxytocin plays a major part in human sexual response both in neuroendocrine function and postcoital behavior. PMID: 9949283
Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Sep;15 Suppl 3:S156-61.
The orgasmic history of oxytocin: Love, lust, and labor.
Magon N, Kalra S. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Air Force Hospital, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Oxytocin has been best known for its roles in female reproduction. It is released in large amounts during labor, and after stimulation of the nipples. It is a facilitator for childbirth and breastfeeding. However, recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin’s role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, bonding, and maternal behaviors. This small nine amino acid peptide is now believed to be involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterine contraction, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, stress and probably many more, which makes oxytocin and its receptor potential candidates as targets for drug therapy. PMID: 22029018
Horm Behav. 2002 Mar;41(2):170-7.
Oxytocin maintains as well as initiates female sexual behavior: effects of a highly selective oxytocin antagonist.
Pedersen CA, Boccia ML. Department of Psychiatry CB#7160, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599.
In previous studies, central administration of the oxytocin (OT) antagonist d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)2, Thr4, Tyr-NH(9)2]OVT (OTA1) blocked receptive and proceptive components of female sexual behavior (FSB) and increased male-directed agonistic behavior when given before progesterone (P) treatment in estradiol-primed female rats but not when given shortly before behavioral testing 4-6 h after P. Because the considerable V(1a) antagonist potency of OTA1 may have contributed to these results, we tested the effects of the far more selective OT antagonist desGly-NH2, d(CH2)5[d-Tyr2, Thr4]OVT (OTA2). In ovariectomized, estradiol benzoate-primed (1 microg x 2 days sc) rats, icv infusion of OTA2 (1 microg) prior to P injection (250 microg sc) significantly suppressed lordosis and hops and darts and trended toward significantly increasing male-directed kicks during testing at 4 and 6 h. Infusion of OTA2 3 h and 40 min after P did not alter behavior at 4 and 6 h after P but significantly decreased lordosis as well as hops and darts and increased male-directed kicks 8-12 h after P. These results provide further evidence that central OT receptor activation shortly after P treatment contributes to the subsequent onset and early expression of FSB and demonstrate, for the first time, that OT receptor activation at later time points also contributes to maintaining FSB. The FSB-stimulating effect of central OT appears to persist for several hours. PMID: 11855901
Horm Behav. 2005 Feb;47(2):164-9. Epub 2004 Dec 9.
Menstrual cycle-related changes in plasma oxytocin are relevant to normal sexual function in healthy women.
Salonia A, Nappi RE, Pontillo M, Daverio R, Smeraldi A, Briganti A, Fabbri F, Zanni G, Rigatti P, Montorsi F.
Department of Urology, University Vita-Salute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.
Circulating levels of the neuro-hypophysial nonapeptide oxytocin increase during sexual arousal and orgasm in both men and women. A few studies have evaluated the effect of the menstrual cycle on plasma oxytocin in normally cycling, sexually active, healthy fertile women using or not using contraceptive pills. In 20 ovulating women and 10 women taking an oral contraceptive (group 1 and group 2, respectively), sexual function, hormonal profile, and plasma oxytocin (OT) were evaluated throughout the menstrual cycle. In group 1, plasma OT was significantly lower during the luteal phase in comparison with both the follicular and ovulatory phases. Plasma oxytocin was significantly correlated with the lubrication domain of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) during the luteal phase and showed a trend towards statistical significance during the follicular phase. In group 2, plasma OT did not show any significant fluctuation throughout the menstrual cycle, even though a significant correlation was evident with both the arousal and the lubrication domain of the FSFI during the assumption of the contraceptive pill. These findings suggest that plasma OT fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle in normally cycling healthy fertile women with adequate sexual activity but not taking any oral contraceptive pill. Moreover, plasma OT levels significantly relates to the genital lubrication in both women taking and not taking oral contraceptive pill apparently confirming its role in peripheral activation of sexual function. PMID: 15664019
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2011 Jun;17(6):558-61.
Oxytocin and male sexual function.
Teng RB, Zhang XH. Institute of Urology and Nephrology, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi 530021, China.
Oxytocin (OT) is a female hormone with the main function of facilitating uterine contraction and milk ejection. Recent studies show that OT is involved in multiple signaling pathways in the central and peripheral nerve system and mainly regulates the physiology and activity of reproduction, including male reproduction and sexual behavior. The roles of OT in penile erection are bio-phasic with proerectile effect in the central nerve system while peripherally inhibiting erection. OT also mediates ejaculation, post-ejaculatory detumescence and the post-orgasm refractory period. OT and OT-receptor in the central nerve system will be a new target in the drug development for the treatment of erectile dysfunction, while OT intracavernous injection promises to be an effective therapy for priapism. This review focuses on the effects of OT on male sexual activities. PMID: 21735659
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